Toyota Australia boss Max Yasuda

Toyota Australia plans to cut 350 employees at its plant. Toyota Australia boss Max Yasuda confirmed the news will soon adjust the number of employees at the Altona plant.

"Toyota Australia is facing a difficult operational and therefore contributes to the finances, it is due to various factors such as the Australian currency strengthened and reduced production volumes in particular export markets," said Yasuda said.

Number of employees be laid off it was 7.5 percent of total employees in the company. Due to the global crisis, total production fell from 149 thousand units in 2007 to only about 95 thousand for the year 2012. "What we think things while turns out to be a permanent situation," said Yasuda. About 70 percent of Toyota's production for export, among others, sent to the Middle East.

Prior to Toyota, the automotive company Ford Australia also reduce 240 employees in the disaster in March last year and the drop in demand for large sedans which have been the mainstay of them.

2010 BMW S1000RR Development and Design











2010 BMW S1000RR Development and Design

The New BMW S 1000 RR.


1. Overall Concept and Features.
2. Drivetrain.
3. Suspension and Running Gear.
4. Electric and Electronics.
5. Body and Design.
6. Range of Equipment.
7. Engine Output and Torque.
8. Specifications.





1. Overall Concept and Features.


The new BMW S 1000 RR is a highly innovative straight-four supersports from
BMW Motorrad now making its world debut.
This true milestone in the world of sports machines combines engine output of
142 kW (193 hp) with overall weight of just 204 kg (450 lb) including fuel (183
kg/403.5 lb dry weight, 206.5 kg/455.3 lb overall with Race ABS).
Specifications of this calibre make this supersports machine not only an absolute
highlight in terms of its power-to-weight ratio and performance, but also,
equipped with Race ABS and DTC Dynamic Traction Control, a new benchmark
in terms of riding dynamics, safety and innovation.
Team BMW Motorrad Motorsport has been playing an active role in the World
Superbike Championship since the beginning of the 2009 racing season,
the new S 1000 RR setting the foundation for the production-based racing
machines ridden by BMW Motorrad's two works riders Troy Corser and
Ruben Xaus.

The Challenge for BMW Motorrad.
To successfully enter the World Championship with a Superbike today, a
manufacturer needs a production model with the right kind of overall concept
consistently applied in all areas. The essential factors, therefore, are supreme
power, a wide range of engine speed, fast revving capacity also over a long
period, optimum chassis stiffness, and perfect set-up of the engine.
Other features absolutely essential more than ever particularly in the top league
of supersports motorcycles are simple and straightforward rideability, lightfooted
handling, absolutely outstanding all-round performance as well as safety
features such as rider assistance systems like ABS and traction control giving
the customer precisely what he needs.
Developing the RR, BMW Motorrad has entered completely new, unchartered
terrain. Clearly, this meant a huge range of new challenges and responsibilities
for the entire Development Team, but also gave the Team enormous motivation
in seeking to set new standards.

The specific targets in developing the S 1000 RR were therefore clear:
o To achieve output and performance of the highest standard.
o To make the suspension absolutely stable, with top handling and supreme
traction.
o To give the new machine that unmistakable, dynamic design of
BMW Motorrad.
o To reduce the weight of the motorcycle to an absolute minimum.
o To ensure top quality typical of BMW .

Unique against the competition.
Over the years and decades, the principle of combining a straight-four power
unit with an aluminium bridge frame has been consistently developed and
has become the dominating technical concept particularly in the supersports
segment. The reason, quite simply, is that a motorcycle of this kind offers
signifi cant benefits in terms of riding dynamics, long-distance endurance, and
straightforward production.
Precisely this is why the new S 1000 RR also applies this concept with its
proven fortes and advantages. But even while the S 1000 RR, in its concept
teaming up a straight-four power unit and an aluminium bridge frame, may
appear at fi rst sight to have similarities with some competitors, the Development
Team at BMW Motorrad has succeeded in enhancing the existing status of this
concept in virtually every respect.
As a result, the S 1000 RR offers not only a wide range of USPs in terms of
technology, performance, and design, but also, through its particularly compact
overall layout, clearly demonstrates the high school of European engineering in
the supersports four-cylinder segment.

Maximum performance and riding dynamics.
The consistent concept of the RR supersports is borne out in particular by the
truly fascinating, innovative high-performance technology and incomparable
riding dynamics of this new machine. The result is an exceptional combination
of supreme riding precision and agility, on the one hand, with unparalleled
engine power and performance, on the other, providing an overall package truly
unique in the market.

Never before has a BMW motorcycle been conceived and built more consistently
for supersports riding in terms of its concept and overall construction. But
at the same time the new S 1000 RR retains many of the virtues so typical of
every BMW to this day: Extreme sportiness and riding dynamics combined with
supreme everyday riding qualities, playful handling together with supreme riding
stability, outstanding performance combined with unparalleled active safety, as
well as dynamic, unmistakable design in conjunction with optimum ergonomics
and aerodynamics.

Free choice of engine characteristics as well as Race ABS and
DTC Dynamic Traction Control
The new S 1000 RR also excels through features and qualities typical of
BMW such as a long running life, superior quality of production and optimum
environmental compatibility thanks to the use of the most advanced exhaust
management with two fully controlled three-way catalytic converters also able
to fulfill future standards and requirements.
Active safety when braking is signifi cantly enhanced by Race ABS developed
especially for the S 1000 RR as a genuine supersports and available as an
option straight from the factory. A further most signifi cant feature likewise
contributing to active safety of the highest standard is DTC Dynamic Traction
Control also available as an option and masterminded electronically for supreme
precision and practical value.
Facing various riding conditions such as wet roads ("Rain"), regular road conditions
("Sport"), a race track with supersport tyres ("Race"), or a race track with
slicks ("Slick"), the rider also has the choice of various engine characteristics
and set-ups available at the touch of a button. And last but not least, Race ABS
and Dynamic Traction Control are combined with the respective riding modes
and coordinated with one another to ensure a supreme standard of performance
and safety all in one.

Valve drive for maximum engine speeds, with single cam followers
and titanium valves.
The primary objective in developing the new S 1000 RR was to create a supersports
with supreme engine power combined with optimum rideability for the
highest conceivable standard of all-round performance.
The water-cooled four-cylinder inline power unit chosen to provide these qualities
is brand-new from the ground up, developing maximum output of 142 kW
(193 hp) at 13,000 rpm and revving up to a maximum speed of 14,200 rpm.
Maximum torque of 112 Nm (82.5 lb-ft), in turn, comes at 9,750 rpm.

The two intake and exhaust valves per cylinder made of extra-light titanium are
operated by very small and equally light single cam followers. In conjunction with
the short sprocket driving the camshaft via an intermediate gear, this ensures
supreme revving qualities at the highest speeds as well as exact maintenance of
valve timing combined with very compact dimensions.
The use of extremely small and light cam followers furthermore gives the
engineer greater freedom in choosing the ideal valve lift curves and, accordingly,
in selecting optimum performance characteristics on both road and track.
All engine components are particularly compact and light, limiting weight of the
overall engine without ancillaries to 59.8 kg (131.8 lb) and keeping the entire
power unit very slim and slender.

Innovative exhaust system with interference pipe butterflies for
optimum power and performance.
Made completely of stainless steel, the exhaust system featured by the
S 1000 RR is designed consistently for optimum power and performance. It
works according to the 4-in-2-in-1 principle with four individual manifolds of
equal length fi rst merging into two pipes beneath the engine block and then
extending into a large-volume pre-silencer. From there the exhaust emissions
flow through a very short and dynamically designed rear-end silencer to the
outside.
A homogeneous power and torque curve ensuring optimum rideability is
acknowledged as the requirement for sporting performance on the road and
fast lap times on the track. Precisely this is why the exhaust system featured
on the S 1000 RR comes with two fully controlled interference pipe butterflies
housed in two connection pipes for the two outer and two inner manifolds, in
the immediate vicinity of the exhaust ducts. As a function of various parameters
such as engine speed and the position of the throttle butterfl y, an adjuster
opens or closes these fl aps, allowing exhaust gas to flow freely between the
two manifolds or, respectively, interrupting the flow of gas. This coordinates the
sequence of oscillations in the exhaust gas mass flow, reducing exhaust gas
counter-pressure at the decisive point (like on a racing muffler) and increasing
the cylinder charge accordingly.
This factor alone makes a signifi cant contribution to the very high standard of
homogenous overall performance offered by the S 1000 RR.

Lightest supersports with Race ABS.
The new RR offers the highest standard of technology also on its suspension
and running gear. Weighing just 206.5 kg or 455.3 lb in road trim and with a
full tank, BMW 's new supersports is by far the lightest machine of its calibre
displacing 999 cc and featuring Race ABS brakes.
One of the features that ensures this light weight is the aluminium bridge
frame integrating the engine tilted to the front at an angle of 32° as a loadbearing
element for optimum torsional stiffness on minimum weight. The front
wheel runs on an upside-down fork with a fi xed tube measuring an ample
46 milli metres or 1.81" in diameter, while a torsionally stiff swing arm made of
aluminium holds the rear wheel in position.
The spring and damping action required is provided by a central spring strut
pivoting on a guide lever.
The rear frame section of the S 1000 RR is a welded light-alloy structure belted
to the mainframe, combining low weight with superior stability and a high
standard of robust strength particularly important to riders and teams on the
race track.

Putting the rider right in the centre.
The rider's seating position leaning forward towards the front wheel for an active
style of riding is simply ideal for the sporting rider with his particularly dynamic
style.
Developing the S 1000 RR, BMW Motorrad has given particular attention to the
superior ergonomics of the machine, providing ideal qualities for both small and
tall riders and therefore focusing consistently on the rider's individual requirements.
The tank section is as slender as on a 600-cc machine, giving the rider
the assurance of excellent control and handling at all times.
In the process of developing the S 1000 RR, BMW Motorrad focused not only
on a lightweight structure, but also on minimum, highly compact dimensions as
an absolutely essential requirement.
To give the S 1000 RR an extremely slender front silhouette but at the same
time to ensure a highly effi cient flow of cooling air, the engineers at BMW
Motorrad had to show all their skill, since, with cylinder bore measuring 80
millimetres or 3.15", the power unit of the RR has the largest cylinder bore in this
segment with a correspondingly wide cylinder head.

Technical challenges of this kind as well as a development period of just four
years made the S 1000 RR the ideal project for consistent, all-out use of CAD
(Computer-Aided Design) technology as well as the most advanced calculation
methods, for example for the machine's aerodynamics.
As the bottom line, the S 1000 RR is the absolutely ideal motorcycle for the
customers of BMW Motorrad looking for new, unprecedented standards and
qualities in the supersports segment.

Overview of technical highlights:
Best-in-class performance a o nd supreme riding dynamics in the supersports
segment.
o Engine output 142 kW (193 hp) at 13,000 rpm, peak torque 112 Nm
(82.5 lb-ft) at 9,750 rpm.
o Weighing 206.5 kg (455.3lb) in road trim and with a full tank, this is the lightest
supersports in the 1000-cc class with Race ABS.
o Best power-to-weight ratio in this class of just 1.05 and, respectively, 1.06 kg
(2.31 and, respectively, 2.34 lb) per horsepower without/with Race ABS.
o Optional Race ABS for outstanding brake performance and safety. Weight
of the entire system just 2.5 kg (5.51 lb), while other systems of a similar kind
weigh up to 10 kg.
o Optional DTC Dynamic Traction Control in conjunction with Race ABS for
optimum performance and maximum active safety when accelerating.
o Only supersports machine with Race ABS and DTC Dynamic Traction Control.
o Various riding modes available at the touch of a button for wet surfaces, regular
road requirements, race tracks with sports tyres and race tracks with slicks.
o All-round set-up, coordination and balance of Race ABS, DTC Dynamic
Traction Control and engine management for all four riding modes.
o High-speed, extra-sturdy valve drive with individual cam followers and
titanium valves.
o Innovative exhaust system with a small and short rear-end muffler, pre-silencer
and electronically controlled interference pipe fl aps as well as a fully controlled
exhaust gas manifold and two fully controlled three-way catalytic converters.
o Optimum gas dosage combined with maximum functional reliability
ensured by E-gas (ride-by-wire), incorporating two bowden cables
(opening and closing cable) leading to the throttle butterfl y adjuster.
o fulfillment of all environmental standards with the potential to meet future
emission requirements ensured by two fully controlled catalytic converters
and digital motor electronics.
o Damper elements with a wide range of adjustment on the spring base, the
inbound and rebound stroke, as well as the greatest damping reserves,
particularly for racing.
o New, clearly defi ned, simple and straightforward options to adjust the suspension
and running gear.
o Aluminium tank unique in this segment for further reduction of overall weight.
o Supreme handling combined with best-in-class high speed and braking stability.
o Multi-functional instrument cluster with racing features such as a laptimer.
The rider is able to set all functions directly from the ends of the handlebar.
o New generation of switches with optimised ergonomics.
o Supreme aerodynamics and sporting ergonomics ideal for both the tall and
short rider.
o Optional HP Gearshift Assistant for shifting up without operating the clutch
and without the slightest interruption of torque and pulling power.
o Wide range of equipment, special features and options naturally offering full
BMW quality (and homologated for road use).
o Alpha Racing Performance Parts: wide range of motorsport and tuning
accessories for circuit racing the BMW S 1000 RR.
o DoubleR Collection: single-piece leather suit, helmet, boots and gloves, all
colour-matched to the BMW S 1000 RR.

High-output four-cylinder inline power unit for maximum performance.
As an absolutely new development from the ground up, the straight-four power
unit featured in the S 1000 RR comes with displacement of 999 cc, with
cylinder bore of 80 millimetres or 3.15" and stroke measuring 49.7 millimetres
or 1.96". The particularly short stroke/bore ratio of just 0.621 provides the
foundation for an absolutely outstanding high-output power unit with supreme
performance at all times.
Maximum output is 142 kW (193 hp) at 13,000 rpm, peak torque is 112 Nm
(82.5 lb-ft) at 9,750 rpm. So again, the power unit of the S 1000 RR sets new
record standards in the supersports 1000-cc class also in this respect.
Optimum riding dynamics and supersports features combined with optimum
rideability and compact dimensions together with minimum weight were the
primary targets in developing the new drivetrain. And with its engine weighing
just 59.8 kg or 131.8 lb, the S 1000 RR boasts the lightest 1000-cc four-cylinder
in its entire segment.
Like all engines from BMW Motorrad, the power unit featured in the S 1000 RR
excels through its supreme overall concept as well as the space-saving arrangement
of all ancillaries and the integrated six-speed gearbox with its dog-type
gearshift. Following the brief to build a thoroughbred supersports power unit,
the engineers at BMW Motorrad have created a particularly compact engine
with ideal concentration of masses around the machine's overall centre of
gravity. Despite the large cylinder bore of 80 millimetres or 3.15", engine width
at crankshaft level is only 463 millimetres or 18.23". And at 558 millimetres or
22.0", the engine is also very low in terms of its overall height.
The cylinder axis on the S 1000 RR power unit is tilted 32° to the front,
providing an optimum centre of gravity as well as the front wheel-oriented
weight distribution so essential on a supersports machine, with absolutely
precise riding control and maximum clarity in terms of feedback from the front
section.

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